+ 2015 Motorcycles
+ 2014 Motorcycles
+ 2013 Motorcycles
+ 2012 Motorcycles
+ 2011 Motorcycles
+ 2010 Motorcycles
+ 2009 Motorcycles
+ 2008 Motorcycles
+ 2007 Motorcycles
+ 2006 Motorcycles
+ 2005 Motorcycles
+ 2004 Motorcycles
+ 2003 Motorcycles
+ 2002 Motorcycles
+ 2001 Motorcycles
+ 2000 Motorcycles
+ 1970-1999 Models
+ 2009-2013 ATVs
+ Concept Bikes
Guides & Resources
+ Beginner's Guide
+ Bikers Dictionary
+ Buyers Guide
+ Concept Bike Guide
+ Compare Bike/ATVs
+ Fuel Economy Guide
+ Maintenance Guide
+ Mfg Compendium
+ Model History Guide
+ Motorcycle Cool Wall
+ Motorcycle Events
+ Motorcycle News
+ Motorcycle Reviews
+ Performance Guide
+ Product Reviews
+ Restoration Tips
+ Specs Handbook
+ Tire/Tyre Guide
+ TMW Museum
+ TMW Interviews
+ Travel Guide
+ Shopping Guide
+ Unit Converter Guide
+ Moto Guzzi
+ MV Agusta
+ Royal Enfield
+ Motorcycle Forums
+ Photo Gallery
+ Become a TMW fan!
+ On Facebook
+ On Google Plus
+ On Twitter
+ On YouTube
+ RSS News Feed
+ RSS Forum Feed
+ Old Photo Galleries
+ Contests & Prizes
+ TMW T-Shirts
+ Search This Site
+ Add us to your site
Advertising & Media
+ Advertise on TMW
+ Our Sponsors
+ Contact Us
+ TMW Recognition
+ TMW Staff
+ Our Motorcycles
+ Our Ride Photos
+ Site Map
Click photos to enlarge. They make great desktop wallpaper.
2012 Harley-Davidson FXDC Dyna Super Glide Custom Review
Super Glide style kicked up a notch, with lots of chrome and plenty of power.
For riders who want a head start on building their dream custom motorcycle or for those who just want a little more straight from the showroom floor, the Dyna® Super Glide® Custom model may be the perfect bike. This stylish performers long, low profile is enhanced by a low-slung, two-up ribbed seat. Steel Laced wheels and the Fat Bob® fuel tank add to the classic look. A mini pull-back handlebar creates a clean look for the front end, which draws attention to the tank-mounted speedometer/ignition console. With a nimble frame, Twin Cam 96 engine and smooth-shifting 6-Speed Cruise Drive® gearbox, the Dyna® Super Glide® Custom is just plain fun to ride.
Up to two times thicker than the competition, custom quality paint comes
standard on all Harley-Davidson® motorcycles. Clearcoat layering up to
five mils deep. Bigger metal flakes. Unique effects in the sunglo and pearl
colors. Skimping simply is not in our vocabulary.
All Harley-Davidson® fuel tanks are finished by handthat's what
makes them stand out from the competition. Their seamless design and unmatched
style are unique among all motorcycles on the road. The tanks are one of the
first and last things people notice when they lay their eyes on a Harley-Davidson®
motorcycleso we make it worth their time.
From wheel to wheel, the Super Glide Custom® is a chromed out feast for
the eyes, blazing with high-end finishes as it holds true both to its heritage
and its custom designation. Its powertrain highlighted by machined cooling
fin tips and chrome rocker covers. Its tank-mounted gauges engulfed in chrome.
Its solid stainless steel pullback handlebars, polished fuel tank medallion
and iconic battery box cover gleaming with iconic Harely-Davidson attitude.
These premium touches make this a one-of-a-kind custom ridenot to mention
a smokin' deal.
The knowledge of what makes an engine truly move a rider runs deep at The
Motor Company, and it was put to good use when we created the Twin Cam 96
engine. We sweated bullets perfecting every cubic inch, pushing design and
And we did it all without compromising one bit of Harley-Davidson's unique styling. Evolved, yet carrying on the legacy of the Flathead, Knucklehead, Panhead, Shovelhead, Evolution® and Twin Cam 88® engines that came before. The performance and durability are a direct result of the untold miles logged on the V-Twin since 1909, and the proud heritage that comes from a century's worth of commitment to life on two wheels.
Fire up the Twin Cam 96 engine and feel the low-end torque unleashed.
Thanks to the lightweight piston design, delivery of the added power is more
refined than ever. Then put your foot on the shifter and feel how the engine
and Six-Speed Cruise Drive® transmission were designed to work together.
Six speeds. A strong driveline and strong internal parts. Low routine maintenance.
And a low cruising rpm couldn't feel better.
Feast your eyes on the Twin Cam 96 engine and there's no mistaking
its roots. This is authentic Harley-Davidson® style through and through
with an attention to detail you won't find from any other motorcycle company.
Black powder-coated heads and cylinders are highlighted by machined cooling
fin tips and chrome rocker covers. It's a jewel machined out of metal. Pure.
Dripping with power.
From the classic edge of the cooling fins to the clean lines of cases and coversthe Twin Cam 96 engine makes an ironclad statement to holding on to what's right and staying true to what satisfies the rider.
You want a ride that rumblesnot begs for mercywhen you lean on
it a little. The Six-Speed Cruise Drive® transmission provides smooth,
quiet shifting and reduces engine speed on the highway, so you get a better
match between engine turnover and road speed. It's a rare ride when a bike
responds like this, and a low growl goes a long way when you're opening up
the road ahead.
Harley-Davidson leverages the latest in technology without compromising style
and function. That means we hide electronics. The whole wiring harness is
skillfully routed behind the jewels of the bikethe tank, engine and
all the other eye-popping features you want to see. It's just another way
The Motor Company goes the extra mile to give its bikes that premium, top-of-the-line
fit and finish.
Hand controls on a Harley-Davidson® motorcycle are incredibly intuitive.
The turn signals are self-canceling and, based on the speed and angle of the
motorcycle, they know how long to stay on. Engaging the controls quickly becomes
second nature so you can focus less on turning off your signal and more on
basking in the freedom of the ride.
You may be cruising with swagger, but you know safety counts. This sophisticated,
factory-installed ABS gives 'stopping power' a double meaning. Its components
are tastefully hidden within the wheel hub, so you'll still turn heads with
clean, streamlined design. But more importantly, you get certainty in the
saddle knowing your bike's going to behave when you need it. Offered as a
part of the 'Security Package' (which includes the H-D® Smart Security
The factory-installed next-generation security system features a hands-free
fob that automatically arms and disarms the vehicle electronic security functions
as you approach and walk away from the bike. Stick the fob on your ignition
key ring and let it do all the work. It's this attention to details and security
that make Harley-Davidson® motorcycles unique. Offered as a part of the
'Security Package' (which includes Anti-Lock Brakes).
Preload is easily adjusted with a spanner wrench to make your suspension
suit you and your riding style. The slammed low rear suspension gives you
a more laid-back riding position and style. Low-profile, kicked back for profiling
down the boulevard and hugging corners.
Harley-Davidson® motorcycles are different from any other bike out on
the road. There's a balance to them. The steering, the maneuverabilityit's
all in concert. And each Harley-Davidson® model is tuned differently to
create a unique riding experience for each individual no matter which bike
they swing their leg over. Let's face it, we didn't get to where we are by
being like everyone else.
New Michelin® Scorcher Tires provide the superior performance,
sensational grip, impressive durability and excellent handling expected on
a race-bred bike. The exclusive deep-cut tread design improves grip and water
evacuation capability. Grip performance and durability is also enhanced by
the tire's rubber compounds, which use the latest generation of Michelin synthetic
polymers. Under the rear rubber, aramid belts are used to stabilize your ride,
which helps inspire confidence in handling.
Let your boots fall where they may, naturally to the mid-mounted controls
and rider foot pegs on the Super Glide® Custom model. An easy reach and
tight rider triangle is confidence-inspiring for new riders eager to set off
on their journey and riders whose legs run slightly shorter than others.
The Super Glide® Custom model comes standard with a stainless steel pullback
handlebar that provides a laid-back riding position for comfort and profiling.
It's the perfect handlebar for cruising endless country roads or tearing up
The seat is home for Harley-Davidson® motorcycle riders. They want a
seat that has unique style without sacrificing comfort. Because of that, Harley-Davidson
invests a lot of time in researching, designing and testing seats so that
every bike has just the right saddle.
Our motorcycles are built to be ridden. A lot. So that means that rider comfort
is top of mind. Always. With the Engine Idle Temperature Management Strategy
(EITMS) feature, the motorcycle automatically cuts fuel and fire from rear
cylinder when idling, which helps reduce engine heat felt by rider and passenger.
This feature can easily be turned on by your dealer.
2012 Harley-Davidson FXDC Dyna Super Glide Custom Model Highlights
NEW Optional Security Package bundling Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and
a Smart Security System for greater value
NEW Paint color options - Michelin® Scorcher tires
- Black powertrain with chrome covers
- Chrome exhaust with dual staggered shorty mufflers
- 5-gallon Super Glide Custom fuel tank
- Chrome Steel Laced wheels
- Low profile front fender
- Sport wrap-around rear fender with painted supports
- One-piece, two-up Dyna classic seat
- Stainless steel, mini pull-back handlebar
- Chrome low-profile tank console with electronic speedometer
2012 Harley-Davidson FXDC Dyna Super Glide Custom Features and Benefits
- Rubber-mounted Twin Cam 96 V-Twin engine with Electronic Sequential
Port Fuel Injection (ESPFI), rated at 92 ft. lbs. of torque
- 6-speed Cruise Drive® transmission
- Exposed under-seat battery box
- Exposed rear coil-over shock absorbers
- Mid-mounted rider footpegs with brake and shift levers
- Optional Harley-Davidson® Smart Security System with hands-free security fob and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
- Optional Chrome Aluminum Profile laced wheels
- Optional Original Equipment Custom Color paint program
2012 Harley-Davidson FXDC Dyna Super Glide Custom - USA Specifications/Technical
US MSRP Price: Vivid Black $12,999, Solids $13,384, Two-Tones $13,704, Custom Colors $13,874 USD
Length 92.9 in. (2360 mm)
Overall Width 38.9 in. (988 mm)
Overall Height 48.5 in. (1232 mm)
- Laden2 26.3 in. (668 mm)
- Unladen 26.5 in. (673 mm)
Ground Clearance 4.6 in. (117 mm)
Rake (steering head) 29°
Fork Angle 29°
Trail 4.7 in. (119 mm)
Wheelbase 64.2 in. (1631 mm)
Tires (Michelin® Scorcher® 31 front and rear):
- Front Scorcher® 31 100/90-19 57H
- Rear Scorcher® 31 160/70-17 73V
Fuel Capacity 5.0 gal. (18.9 L) (warning light at approximately 0.9 gal.)
Oil Capacity (w/filter) 3.0 qts. (2.8 L)
Transmission Capacity 1.0 qt. (.95 L)
Case Capacity3 1.0 qt. (.95 L)
- As Shipped 648 lbs. (294.0 kg)
- In Running Order 679 lbs. (308.0 kg)
- Gross Vehicle Weight Rating 1085 lbs. (492.2 kg)
- Gross Axle Weight Rating:
- Front 390 lbs. (176.9 kg)
- Rear 695 lbs. (315.3 kg)
Engine Air-cooled, Twin Cam 96
Valves Pushrod-operated, overhead valves with hydraulic, self-adjusting lifters; two valves per cylinder
Bore x Stroke 3.75 in. x 4.38 in. (95.3 mm x 111.3 mm)
Displacement 96 cu. in. (1584 cc)
Compression Ratio 9.2:1
Fuel System3 Electronic Sequential Port Fuel Injection (ESPFI)
Air Cleaner Fiberglass Media, washable
Lubrication System Pressurized, dry-sump
Primary Drive Chain, 34/46 ratio
Final Drive Belt, 32/66 ratio
Clutch Multi-plate, wet
Transmission 6-Speed Cruise Drive®
Gear Ratios (overall): U.S.
- 1st 9.311
- 2nd 6.454
- 3rd 4.793
- 4th 3.882
- 5th 3.307
- 6th 2.79
Frame Mild steel, tubular frame; rectangular section backbone; stamped, cast, and forged junctions; forged fender supports; MIG welded
Swingarm Mild steel, rectangular tube sections, stamped junctions; MIG welded
Front Forks 49 mm with polished aluminum fork triple clamp and dual-rate springs
Rear Shocks Coil-over shock
Wheels4 (Chrome Aluminum Profile Laced, front and rear option): Steel Laced
- Front 19 in. x 2.5 in. (483 mm x 64 mm)
- Rear 17 in. x 4.5 in. (432 mm x 114 mm)
- Caliper Type 4-piston fixed front, and 2-piston torque-free floating rear
- Rotor Type (diameter x width): Patented, uniform expansion rotors (floating, front only)
- Front (floating) 11.8 in. x .2 in. (300 mm x 5.1 mm)
- Rear 11.5 in. x .23 in. (292 mm x 5.8 mm)
- Anti-lock Braking System: Available
- Front Wheel 5 in. (127 mm)
- Rear Wheel 3.1 in. (78.74 mm)
Engine Torque5 (per J1349):
- North America 92 ft. lbs. @ 3000 RPM (125 Nm @ 3000 RPM)
Lean Angle (per J1168):
- Right 29.5°
- Left 30.9°
Fuel Economy6 (EPA urban/highway test) 43 mpg (5.5 L/100 km)
Battery (per Battery Council International Rating)
Sealed, maintenance-free, 12V, 19-amp/hour, 270 cca
Charging Three-phase, 40-amp system (493W @ 13.5V, 2000 rpm, 540W max power @ 13.5V)
Starting 1.2 kW electric with solenoid shift starter motor engagement
Lights (as per country regulation):
- Headlamp (quartz halogen) 55-watt low beam, 60-watt high beam
- Tail/Stop Lights 8W/28W
- Turn Signal Lights 28W self-canceling
- Indicator Lamps: High beam, directional light bar, neutral, low oil pressure, engine diagnostics, turn signals, security system7 (optional), 6-speed, low fuel warnings
- Vivid Black
- Big Blue Pearl
- Ember Red Sunglo/Merlot Sunglo
- Midnight Pearl/Brilliant Silver Pearl
- Tequila Sunrise/H-D Orange
Vivid Black $12,999
Custom Colors $13,874
Warranty8 24 months (unlimited mileage)
Service Interval9 First 1000 miles (1600 km), every 5000 miles (8000 km) thereafter
1 Vehicles depicted may differ from vehicles manufactured and delivered.
Specifications and prices listed may differ from specifications and prices
of vehicles manufactured and delivered. All product descriptions (including
depictions, specifications, dimensions, measurements, ratings and competitive
comparisons) are based on available information at the time of publication.
Although such descriptions are believed correct, errors and changes can occur
and complete accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Harley-Davidson may make changes
at any time to prices and specifications, and may change or discontinue models,
without notice and without incurring any obligation. Attention: Vehicles in
the configurations shown and many of the accessories described in this catalog
may not be available for sale or use in some locations. Please check with
your dealer for complete product details and the latest information. All models
feature 6-speed transmission (V-Rod® models and Sportster® models
are 5-speed) and carbon fiber belt final drive; multi-plate clutch with diaphragm
spring in oil bath; and 2-year unlimited mileage warranty.
2 Measurement reflects 180 lb. (81.7 kg) operator weight.
3 Recommended 91 octane or higher fuel (R+M)/2.
4 Standard and optional wheels may vary by country and region.
5 Values shown are nominal. Performance may vary by country and region.
6 The combined fuel economy numbers were derived using a combination of estimated city and highway values. Fuel economy estimates are derived from US EPA exhaust emission certification data on a sample motorcycle from the corresponding family under ideal laboratory conditions. Your actual fuel economy will vary depending on your personal riding habits, road and driving conditions, vehicle condition and maintenance, tire pressure, vehicle configuration (parts and accessories), and vehicle loading (cargo, rider and passenger weight). Break-in mileage may vary.
7 North America security system includes immobilizer; outside North America the security system includes immobilizer and siren.
8 See motorcycle owners manual for complete details.
9 Inspections of certain systems and components are required at 2500 mile (4000 km) intervals. See Owners Manual for full details.
2012 Harley-Davidson FXDC Dyna Super Glide Custom - Canadian Specifications/Technical
Canada MSRP Price: Vivid Black $14,259, Color Option $14,679, Two-Tone Option $15,029, Custom Color Option $15,219, Wheel Option $510, Security Package (Security and ABS) $1,310 CDN
Length: 2,345 mm
Seat Height, Laden: 668 mm
Seat Height, Unladen: 710 mm
Ground Clearance: 120 mm
Rake (steering head) (deg): 29
Trail: 119 mm
Wheelbase: 1,625 mm
Tires, Front Specification: 100/90-19 57H
Tires, Rear Specification: 160/70-17 73V
Fuel Capacity 3: 18.9 l
Oil Capacity (w/filter): 2.9 l
Weight, As Shipped: 295 kg
Weight, In Running Order: 310 kg
Luggage Capacity -Volume: N/A
Luggage Capacity -Weight: N/A
Engine 1: Air-cooled, Twin Cam 96
Bore: 95.3 mm
Stroke: 111.1 mm
Displacement: 1,585 cc
Compression Ratio: 9.2:1
Fuel System: Electronic Sequential Port Fuel Injection (ESPFI)
Primary Drive: Chain, 34/46 ratio
Gear Ratios (overall) 1st: 9.311
Gear Ratios (overall) 2nd: 6.454
Gear Ratios (overall) 3rd: 4.793
Gear Ratios (overall) 4th: 3.882
Gear Ratios (overall) 5th: 3.307
Gear Ratios (overall) 6th: 2.79
Exhaust: Chrome, staggered shorty exhaust with dual mufflers
Wheels, Optional Style Type: Chrome, Aluminum Profile Laced, front and rear
Wheels, Front Type: Steel Laced
Wheels, Rear Type: Steel Laced
Brakes, Caliper Type: 4-piston fixed front , and 2-piston torque-free floating rear
Parking Brake: N/A
Engine Torque Testing Method: J1349
Engine Torque 2: 127 Nm
Engine Torque (rpm): 3,250
Lean Angle, Right (deg.): 29.5
Lean Angle, Left (deg.): 30.9
Fuel Economy: Combined City/Hwy: 5.5 l/100 km
Lights (as per country regulation), Indicator LampsHigh beam, directional light bar, neutral, low oil pressure, engine diagnostics, turn signals, security system(optional), 6-speed, low fuel warnings
Tank-mounted electronic speedometer with odometer, time-of-day clock on odometer, dual tripmeter, RPM/Gear display, fuel gauge with low fuel warning light and countdown feature, low oil pressure indicator light, engine diagnostics readout, LED indicator lights, 6-speed indicator light
1: Measurement reflects 180 lb. (81.7 kg) operator weight.
2: Recommended 91 octane or higher fuel (R+M)/2.
3: Values shown are nominal. Performance may vary by country and region.
4: Standard and optional fuel systems may vary by country.
5: Estimated from fuel economy tests on a sample motorcycle from the corresponding family conducted by Harley-Davidson under ideal laboratory conditions. Not all motorcycle models undergo fuel economy testing. Fuel economy and mileage may vary among motorcycle models within a family. Your mileage may vary depending on your personal riding habits, weather conditions, trip length, vehicle condition and vehicle configuration and other conditions. Break-in mileage may vary.
6: Standard and optional wheels may vary by country and region.
7: North America security system includes immobilizer; outside North America the security system includes immobilizer and siren.
8: See motorcycle owner's manual for complete details.
2012 Harley-Davidson FXDC Dyna Super Glide Custom - Press Release 1
MORE HARLEY-DAVIDSON MODELS WITH TWIN CAM 103 POWER IN 2012
V-Rod® 10th Anniversary Edition and Dyna® Switchback Bagger Join the Model Line
MILWAUKEE (July 20, 2011) Harley-Davidson offers more Big Twin performance for 2012 as its Twin Cam 103 powertrain is standard equipment on Softail® and Touring motorcycle models and most Dyna® motorcycle models. Harley-Davidson will offer two new models for 2012. The V-Rod® 10th Anniversary Edition celebrates a decade of power-cruiser performance, while the new Dyna® Switchback is a convertible custom-touring motorcycle with detachable hard saddlebags and windshield. In addition, the Night Rod Special has significant updates for 2012 with refreshed bodywork and optimized rider ergonomics. Harley-Davidson Custom Vehicle Operations (CVO)TM rolls out the gleaming new CVO Road Glide® Custom, a limited-production, high-performance touring masterpiece.
Harley-Davidson believes every motorcycle it sells can be a custom of one. Harley-Davidson H-D1 is a comprehensive offering of customization tools for the Harley-Davidson motorcycle owner. H-D1 tools include Harley-Davidson Genuine Motor Accessories listings in print and on-line catalogs, Fit Shop and consultation services at Harley-Davidson dealerships, and factory customization and Bike Builder tools on www.harley-davidson.com. H-D1 offers almost unlimited opportunities to optimize fit, function, style and performance and turn a Harley into a motorcycle that is truly personalized to its owner.
Harley- Davidson heads into 2012 with 32 models, each born of experience that spans generations and a passion for riding that will never diminish.
Highlights of the 2012 Harley-Davidson line include:
The Twin Cam 103 engine powers all 2012 Dyna®, Softail® and
Touring models with the exception of the Dyna Street Bob® and Dyna Super
Glide® Custom. This engine produces up to 100 ft lbs. peak torque, an
increase of approximately 6 percent over the Twin Cam 96 engine it replaces
as standard power for many of these models. The Twin Cam 103 is equipped with
automatic compression release. It features identifying badges on the derby
cover, timer cover and air cleaner trim ring.
A Security Package that pairs Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) with Smart Security System with proximity-based, hands-free security fob is available for all 2012 V-Rod®, Dyna®, Softail®, Touring and CVO models. The Security Package is standard equipment on CVO models and on the Road Glide® Ultra, the Electra Glide® Ultra Limited, and the Road King® Classic. The Security Package is a factory-installed option for all other models.
The Night Rod® Special is updated with new tapered tail section, lighter-weight wheels, an inverted front fork and improved ergonomics. Harley-Davidson celebrates a decade of power cruising with the V-Rod® 10th Anniversary Edition motorcycle, finished in Brilliant Silver Pearl bodywork that evokes the anodized aluminum bodywork of the original V-Rod model that introduced the liquid-cooled Revolution V-Twin engine in 2002. All V-Rod models will carry V-Rod 10th Anniversary badges.
The new Dyna Switchback combines hard saddlebags and a windshield with the eager handling and Twin Cam 103 performance of the Dyna chassis. It's a custom-touring bike ready for a long weekend trip, until the detachable bags and windshield are removed. Then in seconds the Switchback becomes a custom street cruiser with a gleaming headlamp nacelle, five-spoke cast-aluminum wheels and a mini-ape handlebar. This convertible concept makes the versatile Switchback two motorcycles in one.
All Harley-Davidson Softail models get the performance boost of the Twin Cam 103 engine for 2012. The Fat Boy and Fat Boy Lo have a new reduced-reach handlebar for more-comfortable ergonomics. A lower, narrower seat shape places the Fat Boy rider in a new "in the bike" position. The Softail Deluxe and Heritage Softail Classic will be available with a new optional "tubeless" Chrome Aluminum Profile Laced wheel option for ease of tire replacement and repair.
The Twin Cam 103 powertrain gives all Harley-Davidson Touring models assertive power for passing. On Touring models, the Twin Cam 103 is equipped with an oil cooler. All Touring models except the Ultra Limited will offer a new "tubeless" Chrome Aluminum Profile Laced wheel option.
The Harley-Davidson Sportster® line appeals to a broad range of riders with six 2012 models ranging from the race-inspired XR1200X to the accessible SuperLow® to Dark Custom roadsters like the Iron 883, Nightster® and Forty-Eight®. The Sportster® 1200 Custom can be personalized for fit, function and style with H-D1 factory customization, a process that allows customers to use the Bike Builder tool on harley-davidson.com to build the motorcycle from a selection of options that are installed as the bike is assembled by Harley-Davidson Motor Company or are installed by a dealer after the motorcycle is delivered. New 1200 Custom color options have been added to Bike Builder for 2012.
The new CVO Road Glide Custom is one of four limited-production 2012 models from Harley-Davidson Custom Vehicle Operations (CVO)TM, each turned out with bold paint, gleaming chrome, and the most-powerful V-Twin engines offered in production Harley-Davidson motorcycles. CVO Road Glide Custom is a hot-rod bagger with a frame-mounted fairing topped with a smoked Wind Splitter windshield, a high-output, amplified Harman/Kardon® Advanced Audio system, and a color-matched, low-profile fuel tank console.
Thank for supporting