2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

Back to 2010 BMW Motorcycle Index Page

Click photos to enlarge.
They make great desktop images.

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design
2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

– 2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

2010 BMW S1000RR Development and Design

The New BMW S 1000 RR.

1. Overall Concept and Features.
2. Drivetrain.
3. Suspension and Running Gear.
4. Electric and Electronics.
5. Body and Design.
6. Range of Equipment.
7. Engine Output and Torque.
8. Specifications.



1. Overall Concept and Features.

The new BMW S 1000 RR is a highly innovative straight-four supersports from
BMW Motorrad now making its world debut.
This true milestone in the world of sports machines combines engine output of
142 kW (193 hp) with overall weight of just 204 kg (450 lb) including fuel (183
kg/403.5 lb dry weight, 206.5 kg/455.3 lb overall with Race ABS).
Specifications of this calibre make this supersports machine not only an absolute
highlight in terms of its power-to-weight ratio and performance, but also,
equipped with Race ABS and DTC Dynamic Traction Control, a new benchmark
in terms of riding dynamics, safety and innovation.
Team BMW Motorrad Motorsport has been playing an active role in the World
Superbike Championship since the beginning of the 2009 racing season,
the new S 1000 RR setting the foundation for the production-based racing
machines ridden by BMW Motorrad’s two works riders Troy Corser and
Ruben Xaus.

The Challenge for BMW Motorrad.
To successfully enter the World Championship with a Superbike today, a
manufacturer needs a production model with the right kind of overall concept
consistently applied in all areas. The essential factors, therefore, are supreme
power, a wide range of engine speed, fast revving capacity also over a long
period, optimum chassis stiffness, and perfect set-up of the engine.
Other features absolutely essential more than ever particularly in the top league
of supersports motorcycles are simple and straightforward rideability, lightfooted
handling, absolutely outstanding all-round performance as well as safety
features such as rider assistance systems like ABS and traction control giving
the customer precisely what he needs.
Developing the RR, BMW Motorrad has entered completely new, unchartered
terrain. Clearly, this meant a huge range of new challenges and responsibilities
for the entire Development Team, but also gave the Team enormous motivation
in seeking to set new standards.

The specific targets in developing the S 1000 RR were therefore clear:
o To achieve output and performance of the highest standard.
o To make the suspension absolutely stable, with top handling and supreme
o To give the new machine that unmistakable, dynamic design of
BMW Motorrad.
o To reduce the weight of the motorcycle to an absolute minimum.
o To ensure top quality typical of BMW .

Unique against the competition.
Over the years and decades, the principle of combining a straight-four power
unit with an aluminium bridge frame has been consistently developed and
has become the dominating technical concept particularly in the supersports
segment. The reason, quite simply, is that a motorcycle of this kind offers
signifi cant benefits in terms of riding dynamics, long-distance endurance, and
straightforward production.
Precisely this is why the new S 1000 RR also applies this concept with its
proven fortes and advantages. But even while the S 1000 RR, in its concept
teaming up a straight-four power unit and an aluminium bridge frame, may
appear at fi rst sight to have similarities with some competitors, the Development
Team at BMW Motorrad has succeeded in enhancing the existing status of this
concept in virtually every respect.
As a result, the S 1000 RR offers not only a wide range of USPs in terms of
technology, performance, and design, but also, through its particularly compact
overall layout, clearly demonstrates the high school of European engineering in
the supersports four-cylinder segment.

Maximum performance and riding dynamics.
The consistent concept of the RR supersports is borne out in particular by the
truly fascinating, innovative high-performance technology and incomparable
riding dynamics of this new machine. The result is an exceptional combination
of supreme riding precision and agility, on the one hand, with unparalleled
engine power and performance, on the other, providing an overall package truly
unique in the market.

Never before has a BMW motorcycle been conceived and built more consistently
for supersports riding in terms of its concept and overall construction. But
at the same time the new S 1000 RR retains many of the virtues so typical of
every BMW to this day: Extreme sportiness and riding dynamics combined with
supreme everyday riding qualities, playful handling together with supreme riding
stability, outstanding performance combined with unparalleled active safety, as
well as dynamic, unmistakable design in conjunction with optimum ergonomics
and aerodynamics.

Free choice of engine characteristics as well as Race ABS and
DTC Dynamic Traction Control

The new S 1000 RR also excels through features and qualities typical of
BMW such as a long running life, superior quality of production and optimum
environmental compatibility thanks to the use of the most advanced exhaust
management with two fully controlled three-way catalytic converters also able
to fulfill future standards and requirements.
Active safety when braking is signifi cantly enhanced by Race ABS developed
especially for the S 1000 RR as a genuine supersports and available as an
option straight from the factory. A further most signifi cant feature likewise
contributing to active safety of the highest standard is DTC Dynamic Traction
Control also available as an option and masterminded electronically for supreme
precision and practical value.
Facing various riding conditions such as wet roads (“Rain”), regular road conditions
(“Sport”), a race track with supersport tyres (“Race”), or a race track with
slicks (“Slick”), the rider also has the choice of various engine characteristics
and set-ups available at the touch of a button. And last but not least, Race ABS
and Dynamic Traction Control are combined with the respective riding modes
and coordinated with one another to ensure a supreme standard of performance
and safety all in one.

Valve drive for maximum engine speeds, with single cam followers
and titanium valves.

The primary objective in developing the new S 1000 RR was to create a supersports
with supreme engine power combined with optimum rideability for the
highest conceivable standard of all-round performance.
The water-cooled four-cylinder inline power unit chosen to provide these qualities
is brand-new from the ground up, developing maximum output of 142 kW
(193 hp) at 13,000 rpm and revving up to a maximum speed of 14,200 rpm.
Maximum torque of 112 Nm (82.5 lb-ft), in turn, comes at 9,750 rpm.

The two intake and exhaust valves per cylinder made of extra-light titanium are
operated by very small and equally light single cam followers. In conjunction with
the short sprocket driving the camshaft via an intermediate gear, this ensures
supreme revving qualities at the highest speeds as well as exact maintenance of
valve timing combined with very compact dimensions.
The use of extremely small and light cam followers furthermore gives the
engineer greater freedom in choosing the ideal valve lift curves and, accordingly,
in selecting optimum performance characteristics on both road and track.
All engine components are particularly compact and light, limiting weight of the
overall engine without ancillaries to 59.8 kg (131.8 lb) and keeping the entire
power unit very slim and slender.

Innovative exhaust system with interference pipe butterflies for
optimum power and performance.

Made completely of stainless steel, the exhaust system featured by the
S 1000 RR is designed consistently for optimum power and performance. It
works according to the 4-in-2-in-1 principle with four individual manifolds of
equal length fi rst merging into two pipes beneath the engine block and then
extending into a large-volume pre-silencer. From there the exhaust emissions
flow through a very short and dynamically designed rear-end silencer to the
A homogeneous power and torque curve ensuring optimum rideability is
acknowledged as the requirement for sporting performance on the road and
fast lap times on the track. Precisely this is why the exhaust system featured
on the S 1000 RR comes with two fully controlled interference pipe butterflies
housed in two connection pipes for the two outer and two inner manifolds, in
the immediate vicinity of the exhaust ducts. As a function of various parameters
such as engine speed and the position of the throttle butterfl y, an adjuster
opens or closes these fl aps, allowing exhaust gas to flow freely between the
two manifolds or, respectively, interrupting the flow of gas. This coordinates the
sequence of oscillations in the exhaust gas mass flow, reducing exhaust gas
counter-pressure at the decisive point (like on a racing muffler) and increasing
the cylinder charge accordingly.
This factor alone makes a signifi cant contribution to the very high standard of
homogenous overall performance offered by the S 1000 RR.

Lightest supersports with Race ABS.
The new RR offers the highest standard of technology also on its suspension
and running gear. Weighing just 206.5 kg or 455.3 lb in road trim and with a
full tank, BMW ‘s new supersports is by far the lightest machine of its calibre
displacing 999 cc and featuring Race ABS brakes.
One of the features that ensures this light weight is the aluminium bridge
frame integrating the engine tilted to the front at an angle of 32° as a loadbearing
element for optimum torsional stiffness on minimum weight. The front
wheel runs on an upside-down fork with a fi xed tube measuring an ample
46 milli metres or 1.81″ in diameter, while a torsionally stiff swing arm made of
aluminium holds the rear wheel in position.
The spring and damping action required is provided by a central spring strut
pivoting on a guide lever.
The rear frame section of the S 1000 RR is a welded light-alloy structure belted
to the mainframe, combining low weight with superior stability and a high
standard of robust strength particularly important to riders and teams on the
race track.

Putting the rider right in the centre.
The rider’s seating position leaning forward towards the front wheel for an active
style of riding is simply ideal for the sporting rider with his particularly dynamic
Developing the S 1000 RR, BMW Motorrad has given particular attention to the
superior ergonomics of the machine, providing ideal qualities for both small and
tall riders and therefore focusing consistently on the rider’s individual requirements.
The tank section is as slender as on a 600-cc machine, giving the rider
the assurance of excellent control and handling at all times.
In the process of developing the S 1000 RR, BMW Motorrad focused not only
on a lightweight structure, but also on minimum, highly compact dimensions as
an absolutely essential requirement.
To give the S 1000 RR an extremely slender front silhouette but at the same
time to ensure a highly effi cient flow of cooling air, the engineers at BMW
Motorrad had to show all their skill, since, with cylinder bore measuring 80
millimetres or 3.15″, the power unit of the RR has the largest cylinder bore in this
segment with a correspondingly wide cylinder head.

Technical challenges of this kind as well as a development period of just four
years made the S 1000 RR the ideal project for consistent, all-out use of CAD
(Computer-Aided Design) technology as well as the most advanced calculation
methods, for example for the machine’s aerodynamics.
As the bottom line, the S 1000 RR is the absolutely ideal motorcycle for the
customers of BMW Motorrad looking for new, unprecedented standards and
qualities in the supersports segment.

Overview of technical highlights:
Best-in-class performance a o nd supreme riding dynamics in the supersports
o Engine output 142 kW (193 hp) at 13,000 rpm, peak torque 112 Nm
(82.5 lb-ft) at 9,750 rpm.
o Weighing 206.5 kg (455.3lb) in road trim and with a full tank, this is the lightest
supersports in the 1000-cc class with Race ABS.
o Best power-to-weight ratio in this class of just 1.05 and, respectively, 1.06 kg
(2.31 and, respectively, 2.34 lb) per horsepower without/with Race ABS.
o Optional Race ABS for outstanding brake performance and safety. Weight
of the entire system just 2.5 kg (5.51 lb), while other systems of a similar kind
weigh up to 10 kg.
o Optional DTC Dynamic Traction Control in conjunction with Race ABS for
optimum performance and maximum active safety when accelerating.
o Only supersports machine with Race ABS and DTC Dynamic Traction Control.
o Various riding modes available at the touch of a button for wet surfaces, regular
road requirements, race tracks with sports tyres and race tracks with slicks.
o All-round set-up, coordination and balance of Race ABS, DTC Dynamic
Traction Control and engine management for all four riding modes.
o High-speed, extra-sturdy valve drive with individual cam followers and
titanium valves.
o Innovative exhaust system with a small and short rear-end muffler, pre-silencer
and electronically controlled interference pipe fl aps as well as a fully controlled
exhaust gas manifold and two fully controlled three-way catalytic converters.
o Optimum gas dosage combined with maximum functional reliability
ensured by E-gas (ride-by-wire), incorporating two bowden cables
(opening and closing cable) leading to the throttle butterfl y adjuster.
o fulfillment of all environmental standards with the potential to meet future
emission requirements ensured by two fully controlled catalytic converters
and digital motor electronics.
o Damper elements with a wide range of adjustment on the spring base, the
inbound and rebound stroke, as well as the greatest damping reserves,
particularly for racing.
o New, clearly defi ned, simple and straightforward options to adjust the suspension
and running gear.
o Aluminium tank unique in this segment for further reduction of overall weight.
o Supreme handling combined with best-in-class high speed and braking stability.
o Multi-functional instrument cluster with racing features such as a laptimer.
The rider is able to set all functions directly from the ends of the handlebar.
o New generation of switches with optimised ergonomics.
o Supreme aerodynamics and sporting ergonomics ideal for both the tall and
short rider.
o Optional HP Gearshift Assistant for shifting up without operating the clutch
and without the slightest interruption of torque and pulling power.
o Wide range of equipment, special features and options naturally offering full
BMW quality (and homologated for road use).
o Alpha Racing Performance Parts: wide range of motorsport and tuning
accessories for circuit racing the BMW S 1000 RR.
o DoubleR Collection: single-piece leather suit, helmet, boots and gloves, all
colour-matched to the BMW S 1000 RR.

High-output four-cylinder inline power unit for maximum

As an absolutely new development from the ground up, the straight-four power
unit featured in the S 1000 RR comes with displacement of 999 cc, with
cylinder bore of 80 millimetres or 3.15″ and stroke measuring 49.7 millimetres
or 1.96″. The particularly short stroke/bore ratio of just 0.621 provides the
foundation for an absolutely outstanding high-output power unit with supreme
performance at all times.
Maximum output is 142 kW (193 hp) at 13,000 rpm, peak torque is 112 Nm
(82.5 lb-ft) at 9,750 rpm. So again, the power unit of the S 1000 RR sets new
record standards in the supersports 1000-cc class also in this respect.
Optimum riding dynamics and supersports features combined with optimum
rideability and compact dimensions together with minimum weight were the
primary targets in developing the new drivetrain. And with its engine weighing
just 59.8 kg or 131.8 lb, the S 1000 RR boasts the lightest 1000-cc four-cylinder
in its entire segment.
Like all engines from BMW Motorrad, the power unit featured in the S 1000 RR
excels through its supreme overall concept as well as the space-saving arrangement
of all ancillaries and the integrated six-speed gearbox with its dog-type
gearshift. Following the brief to build a thoroughbred supersports power unit,
the engineers at BMW Motorrad have created a particularly compact engine
with ideal concentration of masses around the machine’s overall centre of
gravity. Despite the large cylinder bore of 80 millimetres or 3.15″, engine width
at crankshaft level is only 463 millimetres or 18.23″. And at 558 millimetres or
22.0″, the engine is also very low in terms of its overall height.
The cylinder axis on the S 1000 RR power unit is tilted 32° to the front,
providing an optimum centre of gravity as well as the front wheel-oriented
weight distribution so essential on a supersports machine, with absolutely
precise riding control and maximum clarity in terms of feedback from the front

2. Drivetrain.

The new straight-four on the S 1000 RR again lives up to the consistent principle
of BMW Motorrad maintained over a period of no less than 85 years and
applied throughout 25 years of four-cylinder development to provide superior
and unique technical standards going far beyond the usual level of technology.

Largest cylinder bore in the segment measuring 80 millimetres or 3.15″.
The crankshaft on the S 1000 RR is forged out of one single piece of heattreated
steel, runs in anti-friction bearings and comes with the traditional
crank angle of 180° for a consistent fi ring distance at all times. Both the main
and the conrod bearing journals measure 34 millimetres or 1.34″ in diameter.
Running in anti-friction bearings, the connecting rods are forged out of extralight
heat-treated steel. Measuring 103 millimetres or 4.06″ in length, they help
to keep the engine low and compact, saving space and lowering the centre
of gravity even further, with lateral forces on the pistons remaining within
reasonable limits and the engine running smoothly and consistently under all

Together with their anti-friction bearings, the connecting rods weigh just
334 grams.
The upper conrod opening comes without a bearing bush and
measures 17 millimetres or 0.67″ in diameter. Two lubrication openings in the
upper eye of the conrod and positioned at an angle of 45° to the vertical axis
of the rod ensure a reliable supply of oil to the piston pin bearings at all times.
The connecting rods are split horizontally by the proven cracking method, with
the large conrod opening being cracked exactly as required on its centre level
by a sudden pulling force applied hydraulically. The fracture formed in this way
ensures extremely precise subsequent assembly without any further centring of
the components being required.
The cylinder liners with their nikasil coating incorporate forged lightweight box
pistons measuring 80 millimetres or 3.15″ in diameter and featuring a very short
piston skirt. Further highlights are the two narrow piston rings optimised for
minimum friction and a three-piece oil scavenger ring.
Through their low and dynamic design and confi guration, the combustion
chambers, piston base and valve pockets make the entire combustion process
very smooth and effi cient in thermodynamic terms, with the contours of the
piston base being optimised for minimum weight. The pistons themselves,
together with their bolts and rings, weigh just 253 grams each.

To remove and dissipate heat, the pistons are cooled at the bottom under high
thermal loads by oil injection nozzles in the crankcase. This ensures supreme
reliability even under extreme running conditions and extends the overall
running life of the pistons.

Ultra-compact, extra-stiff cylinder crankcase unit.
Split horizontally down the middle of the crankshaft, the cylinder crankcase is
made of extra-strong aluminium alloys. The compact die-cast upper section
forms an extra-stiff combination with the four cylinders and the upper bearing
mounts for the crankshaft. The upper half of the crankcase also takes up the
light and compact six-speed gearbox.
Together with its all-round coolant shell, the cylinder block is designed for
maximum stiffness in closed-deck confi guration and the cylinder liners come
with a wear-proof, low-friction nikasil coating.
The lower section likewise die-cast forms the counter-piece for the main
crankshaft bearing as well as the bearing on the gearbox drive shaft.

Compact cylinder head and cam follower valve drive.
Overall output, performance characteristics, the quality of the combustion
process and fuel consumption depend largely on the cylinder head and valve
drive. In its design and overall confi guration, the four-valve cylinder head
featured on the S 1000 RR thus offers ideal duct geometry, compact dimensions,
optimum thermodynamics, and an effi cient heat balance. The narrow
valve angles help to provide ideal intake ducts as well as a compact combustion
chamber for high compression and optimum all-round effi ciency.
Seeking to achieve maximum power and supreme running smoothness even at
very high speeds while at the same time offering a very stiff structure, keeping
moving masses to a minimum and optimising the timing overlap on the valves,
the S 1000 RR comes with cam follower control by two overhead camshafts
offering the perfect combination of supreme stiffness , minimum weight on the
moving valve components , and a cylinder head very compact in design.
Valve play is compensated by means of very small and light adjustment platelets
running on the spring plates. On the intake side the spring plates are made of
extra-light high-performance aluminium.

The moving masses of the cam followers featured on the S 1000 RR are lower
than with comparable cup tappets. Such reduction of oscillating masses to
an absolute minimum allows fast valve acceleration for a power-oriented cam
profi le and a high level of free valve cross-sections.
This is also why the cam followers on the S 1000 RR are extremely short and
light in their structure and confi guration.
A further particular highlight in the design of the cylinder head is the arrangement
of the cam follower axes, with both the intake and the exhaust cam
followers facing to the rear in the direction of travel. This keeps the cylinder
head even more slender as on the usual arrangement with the bearing shafts at
the outside.

Tight valve angle and light titanium valves.
The valve angle is 11.2° on the intake side and 13.3° on the exhaust. The two
camshafts made of heat-treated steel and arranged directly above the valves
are driven by a toothed chain running on a secondary gear shaft just above the
crankshaft. The intermediate gear used in this confi guration helps to keep the
toothed chain driving the camshafts shorter than would otherwise be the case,
ensuring even greater precision in valve timing and keeping the engine slimmer
on the level of the crankshaft.
The intermediate gear transmission also helps to keep the two drive wheels on
the crankshafts very small, with the overall layout of the cylinder head remaining
very compact.
Optimised valve springs as well as a hydraulic tightening mechanism for
minimum friction serve, fi nally, to minimise drag forces and therfore enhance the
standard of power and performance once again.
Made of extra-light titanium, the intake and exhaust valves are operated by
very small and light individual cam followers. The overall geometric layout of
the cylinder head allows an ideal transmission ratio on the cam followers of
approximately 1:1, reducing fl exural forces and bending to an absolute minimum
and therefore serving to keep the arms very light and almost fi ligree in their
Use of such extremely small and light cam followers offers utmost freedom in
choosing the optimum valve lift curves and, therefore, the very best power and
performance characteristics both for the road and the race track.

Largest valve plate diameter in this segment.
The rev limit on the production version of the S 1000 RR is 14,200 rpm, while in
purely mechanical terms the engine could run much faster.
Thanks to the large cylinder bore of 80 millimetres or 3.15″, valve plate diameter
is larger than on all other engines in this segment, providing the ideal basis
for maximum output and performance: Valve plate diameter on the intake side
is 33.5 millimetres or 1.32″ and 27.2 millimetres or 1.07″ on the exhaust side,
setting a new record in the supersports 1000-cc segment in the interest of
a maximum cylinder charge and an optimum charge cycle.
The valve shafts, in turn, measure 5 millimetres or 0.197″ in diameter.
The intake ducts are machined asymmetrically at the transition point leading to
the valve seat rings in order to improve the flow of gas and optimise the cylinder
charge for even more power at high engine speeds.
The low and fl at design of the combustion chamber guarantees a very high level
of geometric compression with a thermodynamically optimised cylinder base
largely smooth from one side to the other.
With its compression ratio of 13:1, the power unit of the S 1000 RR comes right
at the top in terms of production engines, offering an ideal combustion process
for optimum power yield and maximum effi ciency.

Proven and compact wet sump lubrication.
The lubricating system on the S 1000 RR is a proven wet sump system using
an Eaton oil pump.
Oil is cooled not by a heat exchanger, but rather by a separate oil cooler
integrated beneath the radiator in the lower section of the fairing for superior
flow conditions and aerodynamic qualities. Use of an oil cooler prevents any
undesired, additional thermal exposure of the coolant and therefore allows the
use of a smaller and lighter radiator reducing the amount of coolant required.
The oil level is checked in a very practical and simple manner by means
of an inspection glass on the left side of the engine beneath the alternator
cover. Engine oil capacity is 3.9 litres or 0.86 imp gals including the fi lter.

Perfect cooling concept for optimum flow conditions, good thermal
balance and low weight.

An innovative cooling concept gives the power unit of the S 1000 RR an
optimum thermal balance at all times: The coolant flows through the cylinder
head in crosswise direction, the appropriately cooled coolant flowing into the
cylinder head on the right-hand side, that is on the hotter exhaust section. So
precisely where the temperatures are highest, intense cooling on the cylinder
head ensures a fast flow of coolant and, accordingly, an optimum temperature
balance for optimum power and performance.
Fitted on the right-hand side of the engine, the coolant pump, like the oil pump,
is driven by a single roller chain running on the gearbox drive shaft. The amount
of coolant (50 per cent water, 50 per cent anti-freeze) required is only 2.9 litres
or 0.64 imp gals.

The radiator is in bent trapezoidal design and is fitted upfront of the engine
beneath the cylinder head to provide optimum balance and superior aerodynamic
flow conditions. Thanks to its high standard of effi ciency as well as
elaborate tests in the wind tunnel to optimise the fairing and flow conditions in
terms of aerodynamics, the cooling surface required is relatively small at just
955 sq cm, suffi cient to ensure reliable dissipation of heat under all conditions.
To provide an optimum flow of air to the radiator, BMW Motorrad has developed
a patented air guidance concept ensuring maximum effi ciency in the removal
and dissipation of heat. This concept is then perfectly supplemented by
elaborately calculated aerodynamics developed in the wind tunnel for optimum
removal of outgoing air from the fairing.
The engine spoiler helps to provide a sophisticated, highly aerodynamic flow
of air effectively cooling both the oil sump and the manifolds.

Light and compact ancillary units.
Minimum width, compact and, above all, light structures were the essential
points also in the design and arrangement of the electrical ancillaries on the
engine and their drive systems. The alternator featuring a permanent magnet,
for example, is fitted on the left end of the crankshaft, generating 434 W at
6,000 rpm and confi gured for a maximum speed of 16,000 rpm.
The layshaft starter arranged on the left of the upper half of the engine block
behind the cylinders generates maximum output of 800 W and weighs
1,050 grams. The starter is connected to the engine by a free-wheel and acts
at a transmission ratio of 1:24.61 on the outer left crankweb designed as a spur
gear. To keep weight to a minimum, the left-hand side cover on the alternator
and starter is made of extra-light magnesium.

Multi-disc anti-hopping oil bath clutch, six-speed gearbox and HP
gearshift assistant (optional).

Torque is transmitted from the crankshaft via a straight-toothed primary drive at
a ratio of 1:1.652 to the anti-hopping wet clutch with a total of ten friction plates
(diameter 132.4 mm or 5.22″).
Applying the anti-hopping principle, BMW Motorrad meets all the requirements
of supersports riding, particularly on the race track. The braking power of the
engine in overrun is transmitted to the rear wheel by the clutch only in part, that
is only to a limited extent. When braking hard and shifting down at the same
time, this prevents the rear wheel suddenly running under much less load due
to the dynamic distribution of wheel loads from abruptly locking and juddering,
keeping the motorcycle smooth, stable, and easy to handle also when applying
the brakes.
The clutch is disengaged in overrun mechanically by a ramp mechanism, with
clutch operation via a hand lever and with maximum manual forces limited to
80 Newton. The operating forces generated are transmitted via a cable to the
disengagement lever on the left side of the engine and from there through
a thrust rod to the clutch pressure plate.
This saves substantial weight compared with hydraulic operation of the clutch,
just as the clutch cover made of extra-light magnesium serves to reduce weight
to a minimum, again refl ecting one of the most signifi cant objectives in the
design process.
The dog-shift six-speed gearbox is very compact and light. The individual gears
are shifted by a light, composite steel shift cylinder and shift forks resting on
three points.
To keep the gearbox and transmission system as compact and short
as possible, the primary and secondary shafts are positioned on top of one
another, thus saving a lot of space. Again, this reduces the overall length of
the engine and allows the use of a long rear-wheel swing arm in the interest
of optimum traction.

Kept hollow in its structure again in the interest of minimum weight, the gearshift
cylinder runs in anti-friction bearings. The shift forks are made of steel and
are lubricated by compressed oil. The gears themselves come with straight
teeth, the gear claws and pockets being cut back within to ensure optimum
gear mesh. The transmission of power to the rear wheel, fi nally, is ensured by
a 525 O-ring roller chain on the left side of the engine.
The S 1000 RR offers the customer the option to choose the HP Gearshift
Assistant featured for the fi rst time on the HP2 Sport, thus enabling him to shift
up without operating the clutch and therefore with hardly the slightest interruption
of power and pulling force. In the process the ignition and fuel supply are
interrupted for fractions of a second in order to keep the gearshift absolutely
smooth and even very soft. The advantage, obviously, is even faster acceleration,
with the rider gaining valuable fractions of a second.
The HP Gearshift Assistant may be combined with HP sports footrests available
as special equipment.

Engine management with cylinder-specific anti-knock control for
maximum power and performance.

The S 1000 RR comes with the most advanced and sophisticated digital motor
electronics currently available on a motorcycle. The software incorporated in this
sophisticated BMS-KP (short for BMW Engine Management with Anti-Knock
Control) is an in-house development by BMW Motorrad specifically for motorcycle
applications. Fully sequential, cylinder-specific fuel injection, integrated
anti-knock control, ultra-fast processing of a wide range of sensor signals by
the most advanced microelectronics, a compact layout, low weight and selfdiagnosis
are the most important features of this sophisticated system. And to
meet the requirements of a supersports machine, the engine management unit
comes on the S 1000 RR with an even faster central computer developed to an
even higher standard and fully adapted to this unique machine.
Torque-based engine management takes a wide range of different parameters
and criteria into account. The supply of torque and the sensitive adjustment of
engine running conditions, for example, follow all kinds of requirements tailored
to the rider’s needs.

The main parameter in controlling the engine is the amount of air drawn in
determined indirectly through the throttle butterfl y angle and the running speed
of the engine. Taking additional engine and ambient parameters (including
engine temperature, air temperature, ambient air pressure) into account,
the engine control unit, together with control maps integrated in the system
and appropriate correction functions, determines the ideal injection volume and
ignition timing.
Fuel grade is premium unleaded, that is at least 95 octane. And thanks to
cylinder-specific anti-knock control, the power and performance of the engine
may be raised to an even higher standard when running on higher-octane fuel.

Variable intake manifold length for an optimum torque curve and
maximum power.

Fuel injection is fully sequential, meaning that fuel is injected individually in
accordance with the intake stroke of the respective cylinder into the intake duct.
To improve the torque curve, the S 1000 RR comes with highly elaborate intake
manifolds varying in length according to current requirements: Depending on
engine speed an adjuster motor fitted on the airbox varies the length of the
intake manifolds through map control in two stages.
Serving to provide an optimum cylinder charge, the appropriate amount of fuel
is fed into the engine at all times through four injection jets each on the throttle
butterfl y rail and above the intake manifold. Depending on engine speed and the
power required, the injection jets are controlled either separately or together in
one process.

Variable pressure control for an ideal supply of fuel.
Instead of a reflow pipe, the fuel supply system uses variable pressure control
to deliver only as much fuel as the engine really requires at any given point in
time. This sophisticated fuel supply management allows virtually any change
or modifi cation of fuel supply pressure for optimum fuel/air mixture formation
ensured by operating the electrical and, for the fi rst time, fully controlled fuel
pump at a high pressure of 3-5 bar.
Such adjustment of fuel pressure as a function of current operating conditions is
quite unique in the supersports segment.
The fuel/air mixture is controlled for environmental purposes by means of
two oxygen sensors fitted at the junction points on the exhaust manifolds to
precisely monitor the composition of exhaust gas.

The BMS-KP (BMW Engine Management with Anti-Knock Control) management
unit on the S 1000 RR integrates the automatic idle control and cold start
enrichment functions by way of electronically controlled throttle butterflies. Idle
speed is automatically raised whenever required while warming up by increasing
the level of engine speed by way of the engine management.

E-gas for optimum response and precise gas dosage.
The throttle butterflies measuring 48 millimetres or 1.89″ in diameter are
controlled by an electric motor forming an E-gas or ride-by-wire system. In this
process the rider’s commands are transmitted to a sensor from the cable on
the gas handle.
All-electronic engine management then converts the rider’s commands into
an appropriate torque signal, with the throttle butterfl y controlled electronically.
With all torque factors being taken into account in this way, the system ensures
optimum rideability under virtually all conditions until the traction control
The E-gas system uses the three-level monitoring concept already proven
in its qualities on BMW cars. As an additional feature, the S 1000 RR comes
with a mechanical link connecting the cable to the electronic control unit and
enabling the rider to close the throttle butterfl y under all conditions.
Intake manifold with optimum air supply for the best cylinder charge.
The engineers at BMW Motorrad have used virtually every millimetre on the
S 1000 RR to make the intake system as large as possible, giving it maximum
volume. The airbox with its pure air capacity of 7.9 litres, for example, is directly
above the engine and is likewise designed for maximum power and torque all
in one.
Air intake is at the central point with maximum ram pressure on the upper
section of the fairing between the two headlights. From there intake air flows on
an ideal straight path through an air duct to the steering head shaft right and left,
past the steering head, directly into the airbox and from there to the vertically
arranged plate air fi lter.
While other manufacturers in the supersports segment all use a lying or
horizontal plate air fi lter, the disadvantage in that case is that the flow of air has
to be diverted. The S 1000 RR avoids such unfavourable diversion of intake air,
with the air duct leading from the air intake opening to the steering head shaft
serving at the same time as the support for the instrument cluster, rear-view mirrors, headlights and horn. And made of extra-light pressure-cast magnesium,
this component not only saves the need for separate supports, but also reduces
weight to a minimum.
The air inlet in the upper section of the fairing uses the ram-air effect almost
perfectly through its position, supporting the air supply process very effi ciently
at high speeds, with up to 30 mbar overpressure in the airbox, depending on the
current speed of the machine.
At a speed of 250 km/h or 155 mph, for example, this means an extra 4 kW
engine output. This is superior to all competitors in this segment and again
clearly underlines the quality of airflow in and from the airbox and, quite generally,
the supply of air to the engine in the S 1000 RR.

Innovative high-performance exhaust system with interference
pipe butterflies.

The exhaust system on the S 1000 RR is likewise built for maximum
performance. For this reason, to save weight and to centralise all masses, the
development engineers at BMW Motorrad decided to fi t the exhaust system
beneath the engine, instead of choosing an under-seat solution.
The four individual manifolds of equal length fi rst merge beneath the engine
block into two pipes (4-in-2-in-1 principle) and then come together in an
extra-large pre-silencer with three chambers working according to the refl ection
principle. From there the flow of exhaust gas goes out through a short, light and
very dynamic absorption rear muffler.
Both the outer skin and the interior of the complete system are made of
top-quality stainless steel.
To achieve optimum rideability as the prerequisite for sporting and dynamic
performance on the road and fast laps on the track, a homogeneous power and
torque curve is absolutely essential. The exhaust system on the S 1000 RR
therefore comes with two interference- type butterflies within two connection
tubes linking the two outer and the two inner manifolds in the immediate vicinity
of the exhaust ducts. Depending on various engine map parameters such as
engine speed and the position of the throttle butterfl y, an actuator opens and
closes both of these fl aps, opening or, respectively, interrupting the connection
between the two manifolds.

This coordinates oscillations in the flow of exhaust masses in order to reduce
exhaust gas counter-pressure at exactly the right point (like in a racing muffler)
and increase the cylinder charge accordingly.
This technology never seen before on a production motorcycle makes a
signifi cant contribution to the homogenous and “beefy” power and performance
characteristics of the engine, ensuring very good torque and boosting the
overall performance of the S 1000 RR to an even higher level.
The two metal-based catalytic converters with cell density of 100 cells/sq
inch are fitted in the pre-silencers upfront of the manifold entry point. They
come complete with a rhodium/palladium coating combining high temperature
resistance with a long running life.

Small and light rear muffler thanks to the exhaust manifold.
Maintenance of the strictest noise and emission limits despite supreme engine
power is ensured on the S 1000 RR by features such as an electronically
controlled exhaust fl ap positioned upstream of the rear-end muffler, opening
up the exhaust pipe to its optimum cross-section as a function of increasing
engine speed. Varied in this way, the exhaust pipe cross-section provides
a deep engine rumble at lower to medium engine speeds, while the larger
cross-section opening up at higher speeds ensures maximum output and a very
sporting sound.
The very small and compact rear-end silencer accentuates the slender look of
the S 1000 RR and enables the rider to lean over to a very low angle in bends.
So here again, the rear silencer helps to ensure not only a sporting and powerful
sound, but also truly impressive output and performance on road and track.
Made of top-quality stainless steel, the complete exhaust system weighs a mere
10.7 kg or 23.6 lb. At the same time this is the most compact exhaust system
with fully controlled emission management in this entire segment.
As an option the S 1000 RR is available with a very light slip-on muffler made
of titanium and with a carbon trim cover at the rear. The supplier of this special
muffler in its very sporting and dynamic design is Akrapovi?® .

Free choice of “Rain”, “Sport”, “Race” and “Slick” riding modes for
optimum adjustment to road and track conditions.

At the simple touch of a button at the end of the right handlebar, the rider is able
to choose among various riding modes for all kinds of different conditions and
requirements such as riding on the road, on a wet surface, or the race track.
To make his choice, all the rider has to do is press the Mode Switch on the
right handlebar control unit until the display in the instrument cluster reaches
the mode desired. Then, pulling the clutch lever and turning the gas handle to
idle, the driver is able to confi rm his request also while riding and the mode is
switched accordingly.
The mode last chosen is always retained when re-starting the motorcycle.
When riding on a wet surface with reduced grip, the Rain Mode automatically
reduces maximum output to 110 kW (150 hp). This mode also provides
a particularly homogenous power and torque curve, with engine response and
power build-up by the engine being extra-smooth and soft.
When riding on a dry surface the Sport Mode provides full engine output
of 142 kW (193 hp) in combination with even more spontaneous and direct
response to the gas lever. This mode is intended above all for use on country
The Race Mode has been developed specifically for racing the S 1000 RR on
race tracks using street-legal supersports tyres. Here again the rider benefits
from the full power of the engine, with an even more direct and signifi cantly
more dynamic response at all speeds.
The Slick Mode is intended exclusively for racing on the track using slick tyres.
Like the Race Mode, this mode not only provides full engine power, but also
ensures very direct engine response for racing or riding under race-like conditions.
Contrary to the Race Mode, the Slick Mode allows DTC Dynamic Traction
Control to cut in permanently only from a side angle of 200. This, in turn, allows
the rider to wheelie for up to fi ve seconds when leaning over to an angle of less
than 200, ensuring optimum acceleration and pulling force when accelerating
out of a bend.
While the three modes Rain, Sport, and Race are activated by the rider directly
from the end of the handlebar, the Slick Mode comes with an activation lock
function provided by a code plug for the control unit beneath the rider’s seat of
the S 1000 RR.

The rider is therefore required to fi rst insert this plug before activating the Slick
Mode, since apart from allowing the even more dynamic engine set-up he also
in this way activates different Race ABS and Traction Control settings for riding
to the absolute limit on slick tyres. In this setting DTC is no longer suitable for
surfaces with an extremely low frictional coeffi cient such as wet cobblestone or
loose gravel.
Race ABS and DTC Dynamic Traction Control are combined individually with
the various riding modes, thus harmonising perfectly with one another for
maximum riding safety.
When required, the rider is able to deactivate the Race ABS and DTC Dynamic
Traction Control functions separately from one another.

DTC Dynamic Traction Control for even greater safety when

As an option available straight from the factory, the S 1000 RR comes with DTC
Dynamic Traction Control refl ecting the truly outstanding performance, riding
dynamics, and supersports character of this new machine.
DTC Dynamic Traction Control is a development from motorsport featured,
for example, on the Superbike racing version of the S 1000 RR in the World
Superbike Championship. This important feature makes a signifi cant contribution
to the truly impressive overall performance and outstanding riding safety of
the S 1000 RR.
Particularly under changing riding conditions, on slippery surfaces and with
sudden changes in the frictional coeffi cient on the surface, BMW Motorrad’s
new DTC Dynamic Traction Control offers the rider signifi cant support and
assistance. This advanced system largely suppresses any undesired slip on the
rear wheel when accelerating and, therefore, avoids the otherwise inevitable
loss of lateral stability causing the rear wheel to break loose and, should the
worst come to the worst, leading to an accident.
Using the ABS sensors to compare the running speed of the front and rear
wheels as well as data supplied by the side angle sensor, the electronic control
unit recognises whether the rear wheel is spinning and reduces engine power
accordingly by taking back the ignition angle and intervening in the throttle
butterfl y position by way of engine management.

Unlike the former ASC systems used by BMW Motorrad, DTC Dynamic Traction
Control therefore also determines the side angle of the motorcycle by way of an
elaborate system of sensors, taking also this data into account whenever active.
Like BMW Motorrad Race ABS also available as a new feature, DTC Dynamic
Traction Control is combined in each case individually with the engine management
modes available.
In the Rain Mode for riding on a wet surface, traction control cuts in at a very
early point before reaching the friction limit on the tyres, thus offering the rider
maximum riding safety combined with signifi cant riding pleasure even under
diffi cult conditions.
In the Sport Mode, that is when riding on a dry road and, in particular, on
cross-country routes, traction control cuts in a lot later, since here the tyres have
a much better frictional coeffi cient on the surface. Under these conditions, DTC
Dynamic Traction Control therefore allows the rider to accelerate safely but
dynamically out of a bend, enjoying maximum riding pleasure on public roads.
In the Race Mode DTC Dynamic Traction Control goes much further to the
extreme, allowing a very sporting style of riding on the race track with streetlegal
sports tyres.
In the Slick Mode DTC Dynamic Traction Control is again set up perfectly for
the race track, but now considers the much greater grip provided by slicks and
enables the rider to choose all-out racing performance.
Although DTC Dynamic Traction Control offers the rider valuable support and
therefore represents a very signifi cant safety factor when accelerating, it is
obviously not able – just like Race ABS – to re-defi ne, let alone change, the
limits and laws of riding physics. In other words, the rider may still exceed these
limits on account of misjudgment or a riding error, which in an extreme case may
lead to an accident.
DTC Dynamic Traction Control does however help the rider to capitalise on the
dynamic performance of the S 1000 RR much more safely and much closer to
the limits of riding physics. And last but not least, the rider may also switch off
DTC Dynamic Traction Control via a separate button if he wishes.

Innovative suspension technology for supersports performance of the
highest standard.

Through its consistent concept, the S 1000 RR, as a genuine supersports
machine, offers not only the most outstanding drivetrain technology for
optimum performance at all times, but also comes with truly exceptional riding
precision ensuring unparalleled riding dynamics and almost playful agility. So
the suspension and running gear of the S 1000 RR likewise offers the highest
standard of excellence and sporting performance.
The “heart” of the suspension is the aluminium bridge frame weighing just
11.98 kg or 26.42 lb, tilting the engine to the front at an angle of 32° as a
load-bearing element.
While this type of frame is already state-of-the-art in large sectors of the
supersports segment, the engineers at BMW Motorrad, in developing the
S 1000 RR, focused consistently throughout the entire process on the need for
maximum riding dynamics. And particularly through their close communication
and cooperation with the departments responsible for drivetrain development
and design, they ultimately created a suspension and running gear setting new
standards in many respects.

Lightest supersports in the 1000-cc class with Race ABS.
Weighing just 206.5 kg or 455.3 lb in road trim and with a full tank, the new
S 1000 RR is the lightest supersports with an engine capacity of 999 cc and
Race ABS. But this alone is not suffi cient to explain the outstanding handling
qualities of the S 1000 RR quite in every respect. Rather, it is particularly the
machine’s ideal centre of gravity carefully set-up in elaborate tests as well as the
geometry of the running gear that makes handling of this kind possible in the
fi rst place. The steering head angle of 66.1°, for example, is very steep, wheel
castor of 95.9 millimetres or 3.776″ is appropriately short.
In the process of determining the ideal stiffness of the frame combined with
minimum weight, BMW Motorrad – like in nearly all calculations and developments
for the new S 1000 RR – focused consistently on computer models,
simulations, CAD technology, and countless riding tests.



3. Suspension and Running Gear.

In conjunction with optimum ergonomics, the slender structure of the motorcycle
also helps to provide a particularly good and safe riding experience as well
as very smooth and easy handling.

Aluminum bridge frame with the engine serving as a load-bearing
The result of this development process is an aluminium bridge frame made
up of four castings. This particularly confi guration serves above all to meet the
great challenges in designing a motorcycle with a very slim waist and a large
airbox. The spread of stiffness values follows a wide range of calculations and
simulations as well as many riding tests taking all kinds of variants into account.
The steering head and the two side sections with their integrated engine
mounts are manufactured in a tip casting process, while the rear section with
the rear engine mount, the swing arm supports as well as the mounting points
for the footrests and kinematic elements are made in a low-pressure die-casting
process. A high-precision welding robot then assembles the individual components
in the Aluminium Competence Centre at BMW Motorrad’s Berlin Plant to
form an extra-stiff and sturdy unit all round.
The rear frame section on the S 1000 RR is a welded structure made up of
square aluminium profi les bolted on to the frame. Again, this combines low
weight with superior stability and robust strength appreciated particularly by
competition riders and teams on the race track. A further advantage of this
confi guration is that it allows optimum access to the spring strut, for example
when changing the set-up for specific requirements.

Long rear-wheel double swing arm for optimum traction.
Consistently seeking to give the S 1000 RR optimum performance in every
respect, the development team at BMW Motorrad, in developing the suspension
and running gear, concentrated in particular on the mechanical grip of
the wheels and, accordingly, on the overall need for supreme traction. These
requirements are fulfillled above all by the long rear-wheel swing arm helping
to reduce lift-up and wheel relief forces on the rear wheel thanks to the drive
and thrust forces conveyed by the upper and lower chain element. In practice
this means optimum transmission of drive power, superior performance and
a smooth and reliable response at the rear particularly while accelerating, with
substantial advantages for the rider.

With its effective overall length between the swing arm rotation point and the
rear wheel axle of 593 millimetres or 23.35″, the S 1000 RR comes with one of
the longest swing arms in the supersports segment. The swing arm mount in
the frame also helps to promote supersports performance, particularly on the
race track, with the inserts for the swing arm mounts in the frame serving to
vary the height of the swing arm rotation point and, accordingly, the anti-squat
effect when accelerating, thus meeting the rider’s personal requirements and
the particular requirements of a specific race track or stretch of road.
For reasons of weight and to ensure maximum torsional stiffness, the confi guration
chosen is a double swing arm made of deep-drawn aluminium plates
with particularly thin walls as well as a cast dish at the bottom. This cast dish
houses all components subject to high mechanical loads such as the kinematic
pivot and junction points, the swing arm mount, and the rear wheel support. A
further advantage of the cast dish at the bottom is the reduction of tolerances in
production to an absolute minimum on all of these kinematically relevant points.
Together with the cast dish, three separate components made of deep-drawn
aluminium plates with wall thickness of just 2.5 millimetres or 0.098″ form a
torsionally stiff and very light swing arm body weighing just 6.22 kg or 13.72 lb.
On the left-hand side the drive chain runs through the swing arm in a shaft.
The wide range of adjustment on the rear axle support of 45 millimetres or 1.77″
provides the option to change the position of the rear axle, moving forward by
up to 17.5 millimetres or 0.69″ and backward by up to 27.5 millimetres or 1.08″,
depending on whether the rider is looking for a reduced wheelie effect (adjustment
to the rear) or more traction (adjustment to the front).
Wheelbase thus varies from 1,414.5 millimetres or 55.69″ to 1.459.5 millimetres
or 57.46″, with the standard wheelbase under DIN unladen weight measuring
1.432 millimetres or 56.38″.

Fully adjustable spring elements with very high damping reserves.
Seeking to give the new S 1000 RR optimum suspension qualities with perfect
running gear, the engineers and specialists at BMW Motorrad decided to give
the new machine a central spring strut with an adjustable spring base as well
as adjustable damper inbound and rebound control. A further advantage is that
this confi guration allows the adjustment of low-speed damping (for example on
long, stretched-out undulating surfaces) and high-speed damping (eg on short
bumps) on the pressure stage (inbound), thus offering perfect set-up qualities
with maximum precision.

The spring strut is activated by compact and light kinematic levers and makes
allowance for the wide range of use also on the race track by offering a wide
range of adjustment as well as very substantial damping reserves.
Overall spring travel on the rear wheel axle is 130 millimetres or 5.12″, with
90 millimetres or 3.54″ positive and 40 millimetres or 1.57″ negative spring
Using eccentric inserts on the upper spring strut support, the rider is able to
raise the entire rear end of the S 1000 RR by 10 millimetres or 0.39″ on the
spring strut support, thus taking his individual requirements and the specific
character of the respective route into account.
The S 1000 RR meets equally high demands in terms of riding dynamics also
on the front suspension. The confi guration used up front is an upside-down
fork with its fi xed tube measuring an ample 46 millimetres or 1.81″ in diameter.
This size alone is quite unique in the supersports segment, offering far greater
braking stability and better feedback than the usual fi xed tubes measuring
43 millimetres or 1.69″ in diameter.
The fi xed tube is mounted on the steering head by a light aluminium steering
shaft tube running in two extra-large ball bearings as well as two fork bridges
made of forged aluminium in the interest of minimum weight. To adjust the
height of the motorcycle at the front to the personal needs and preferences
of the rider as well as the route he is taking, the immersion tube at the front
provides an appropriate overlap, overall adjustment travel of 15 millimetres or
0.59″ allowing the front end to be lowered by up to 5 millimetres or 0.197″ and
raised by up to 10 millimetres or 0.394″.
The upside-down fork comes with cartridge inserts inside, that is a separate
hydraulic piston cylinder system, and allows adjustment of both the spring
base as well as damper rebound and inbound action. Here again, the sensitive
behaviour and response of the suspension, the wide range of adjustment
and very signifi cant damping reserves even on the race track offer superior
fl exibility and individual choice. Overall spring travel is 120 millimetres or 4.72″,
with 75 millimetres or 2.95″ positive and 45 millimetres or 1.77″ negative spring
To allow simple and reliable control at all times, the individual settings on both
the spring strut and the upside-down fork are clearly specifi ed by numbers
ranging from 1 to 10. So there is no need to count up to 30 clicks in the usual
tedious process required on some other models in this segment.

A further advantage is that both the inbound and rebound stages are colourmarked,
again – like many other features – confi rming the very practical
approach taken by the development engineers at BMW Motorrad.

Very light and extra-stiff aluminium wheels.
Designed and confi gured from the outset as a supersports machine offering
supreme performance, the new S 1000 RR obviously also comes with appropriate
wheels. These are fi ligree ten-spoke pressure-cast aluminium wheels in
truly dynamic design offering optimum qualities in every respect.
Once again, one of the primary objectives in developing the wheels was to
reduce weight to an absolute minimum while retaining a supreme standard
of all-round strength and stability. Precisely this is why the brake discs do not
come with a separate mount and the additional bolts which would be required
for this purpose – instead, the brake disc rings are fitted directly around the
wheel hubs. This alone and the particular construction of the wheels makes the
wheels on the S 1000 RR the lightest in their segment.
On the front wheel the brake discs are connected directly to an extra-strong
wheel star, without any additional mounting or attachment elements. The fi ve
radial arms of the star extending out of the hub form individual forks supporting
the rim consistently by means of ten cast spokes.
This fork confi guration gives the front wheel excellent radial stability in shape
also under high wheel loads and at the same time caters for the signifi cant
circumferential forces acting on the wheel above all when applying the brakes.
This design of the wheel tailored to load conditions and requirements helps
to keep the spokes very fi ligree and light, not only reducing the weight of the
wheel, but also providing a very light and transparent look.
Drive and thrust forces are transmitted on the rear chain by means of an
integrated thrust damper. Tyre dimensions of 120/70 ZR 17 at the front and,
respectively, 190/55 ZR 17 at the rear represent the latest state of the art in the
supersports segment.

Radial brakes for excellent stopping power.
The brake system on the new S 1000 RR lives up to the high standard of
performance on the drivetrain and suspension in every respect. Here again,
therefore, the development specialists at BMW Motorrad have given utmost
attention to meeting all the demands and wishes of the most discerning
supersports customers.
To fulfill these requirements, the front wheel comes with a double disc brake
incorporating two steel brake discs in fl oating arrangement and measuring
320 millimetres or 12.60″ in diameter and 5 millimetres or 0.197″ across.
The hydraulic system incorporates a radial master cylinder with its master piston
measuring 19.05 millimetres or 0.75″ in diameter as well as two radially mounted
four-piston fi xed-calliper brakes from Brembo with brake pistons 34 millimetres
or 1.34″ in diameter and split friction pads made of sintered metal.
Brake lines in steel tissue cladding and therefore very strong and stable serve
to convey the brake forces exerted by the rider with his hand in an optimum,
smooth and absolutely reliable process.
The entire brake system on the S 1000 RR stands out, as a result, through its
crystal-clear pressure point, optimum brake effi ciency and clear dosage of brake
power with maximum resistance to fading and high temperatures not only on
the road, but also and in particular on the track.
The rear wheel comes with a hydraulically operated single-disc brake
supporting the brake at the front. Diameter of the steel brake disc fitted fi rmly in
position is 220 millimetres or 8.66″, disc thickness is 5 millimetres or 0.197″.
The rear-wheel brake is operated by the footbrake lever acting on the 12.7-millimetre
(0.50″) master piston in the main brake cylinder and from there, via the
pressure-stable, steel-clad brake line, on an extra-light single-piston fl oating
calliper likewise featuring sintered metal pads.

Race ABS with four pressure sensors for extra-precise control and

BMW Motorrad Race ABS specifically developed for supersports requirements
and available as an option straight from the factory ensures maximum active
safety when braking, again making allowance for the outstanding performance
and unique character of the S 1000 RR.
To comply with various riding conditions such as a wet surface (“Rain”), regular
road conditions (“Sport”), a race track with supersports tyres (“Race”) or a race
track with slicks (“Slick”), the rider is able to adjust the characteristic features
and performance of the engine simply by pressing a button, thus giving Race
ABS the right confi guration and input at all times. These characteristics interact
with the respective riding modes and are carefully coordinated with one another
for maximum safety at all times.
This new BMW Motorrad Race ABS is a brand-new development from the
ground up, once again signifi cantly lighter than all former partly integrated
systems. With the control unit weighing just 1.65 kg or 3.64 lb and with overall
weight of just 2.5 kg or 5.51 lb, BMW Motorrad Race ABS offers excellent
qualities specifically for a supersports machine. And apart from its low weight,
the system stands out in particular through its further improved control and
operating functions.
Over and above the excellent overall set-up, this superior control, performance
and brake management is ensured by the use of four pressure sensors which,
in conjunction with the very elaborate rear-wheel lift-off detector, allows even
better distinction than before between a bump on the road and the rear wheel
Pulling the handbrake lever, the rider activates the double-disc brake at the
front, while brake pressure on the rear-wheel brake remains at a low level.
Pressing the footbrake lever, the rider then activates the rear-wheel brake as
well. In the Race and Slick Modes, the rear-wheel lift-off detector does not
intervene in the rider’s braking action, allowing him to apply the brakes even
harder whenever required, for example on slightly undulating surfaces and
where the motorcycle has adequate grip.
In the Slick Mode the rider still has ABS on both wheels when pulling the
handbrake lever alone. Then, pressing down the footbrake, the particularly
experienced rider is able to go into a brake drift without having to forego the
benefits of front-wheel ABS. In other words, ABS no longer cuts in on the rear
wheel when pressing down the footbrake lever.
As soon as the rider pulls the handbrake lever, the pressure sensor integrated
in the front-wheel control circuit switches on the brake light and the pump, the
latter immediately delivering brake fl uid through the open valve to the rear wheel
The pressure set in the rear wheel circuit is measured by a second pressure
sensor and is controlled according to the distribution of brake power required
and the brake force generated by the rider. The third pressure sensor in the rear
control circuit, fi nally, measures the brake pressure activated by the rider’s foot.
Use of a fourth pressure sensor in the front wheel circuit allows further improvement
and even fi ner control of front-wheel brake pressure compared with
former BMW Integral ABS II, since the system is able to compare the actual
level of pressure in the control and wheel circuits.
As a result, there is now no need for the usual throttle blades, which serves to
provide an optimum pressure point and allows perfect dosage of brake power.
All pressure sensors are integrated in the pressure modulator and the overall
configuration of the system with its integrated pressure sensors now also avoids
the need for a brake light switch.
Yet a further option is to deactivate Race ABS completely for special purposes
and requirements.
While Race ABS gives the rider valuable support and therefore represents a
very signifi cant safety factor when applying the brakes, it is not able to re-defi ne
or change the laws and limits to riding physics. Hence, even with this most
sophisticated system, the rider may still misjudge a situation or make a mistake
on his machine leading, should the worst come to the worst, to an accident.
Race ABS nevertheless helps the driver use the supreme stopping power and
brake qualities of the S 1000 RR much better and more safely. But even Race
ABS cannot provide maximum stopping power at the physical friction limit when
leaning over to the side, and does not relieve the rider of his responsibility to ride
safely and carefully.

Weight-optimised hybrid on-board network.
Contrary to most models from BMW Motorrad, the S 1000 RR does not come
with central vehicle electronics (CVE) in the conventional sense, but rather
features a hybrid on-board network where, thanks to the smaller range of
equipment – for example no heated handles or no 12V power socket – there is
no need for a central control unit.
Instead, the functions of CVE are integrated in the instrument cluster and there
is a relay box at the rear of the motorcycle.
The S 1000 RR nevertheless uses a CAN (Controller Area Network) bus system
to control and mastermind various functions of the motorcycle, networking the
instrument cluster, the ABS and engine control units and, where fitted as an
optional extra, the anti-theft warning system. Functions such as the direction
indicator and headlight control are also integrated in the instrument cluster.
Refl ecting the supersports character of the S 1000 RR, this intelligent concept
again saves both weight and space. A further important point is that the overall
system of electrics and electronics may be diagnosed evenly and comprehensively
also of the S 1000 RR, since the BMS-KP digital motor electronics control
unit is not only responsible for engine management, but also transfers all data
to the diagnostic control unit, allowing quick and target-oriented location of any
defects or defi ciencies.

Compact and light alternator on the left end of the crankshaft.
Power is supplied by an alternator at the left end of the crankshaft equipped
with a permanent magnet and measuring only 33 millimetres or 1.30″ across.
Maximum output is 434 Watt at 6,000 rpm, maximum speed 16,000 rpm. In
order to minimise any loss of power and save weight, the control unit is positioned
behind the engine block.
The S 1000 RR is available with a fall sensor as special equipment simply
plugged in when required. Contrary to similar sensors used by the competition,
however, this fall sensor is an electronic acceleration sensor able to detect the
side angle of the machine, and does not work mechanically. In practice, this
rules out the frisk mechanical sensors quite often prone to misfunction.



4. Electric and Electronics.

The S 1000 RR comes as standard with a light 10 Ah battery. Whenever fitted
with an anti-theft warning system as an option, the machine features a 12 Ah
battery offering a longer service life and practical benefits.
Again with the objective to ensure maximum engine performance, the
S 1000 RR features a fully controlled fuel pump operating at a maximum
pressure of 5 bar.

Multi-functional instrument cluster with racing features.
The instrument cluster comes with a large, easy-to-read LCD display as well as
an analogue rev counter also with a clear scale very easy to read.
In developing the instrument cluster, the responsible engineers and other
specialists attached utmost attention to clarity and the avoidance of any
refl ections in the display. Apart from the gear currently in mesh, the display also
presents the mode currently chosen by the rider, that is Rain, Sport, Race, or
The rider is able to switch from one mode to the other from the right-hand end
of the handlebar also while riding, simply pulling the clutch and turning the gas
handle to the idle position to confi rm the change in mode.
The instrument cluster featured on the S 1000 RR comes with a far wider
range of functions than is generally the case in this class, making it absolutely
unique in the supersports segment in terms of its wide range of options and
practical use. As an example, the rider may switch over the display to the race
track mode, receiving information on his current, best and latest lap times. And
in conjunction with the lap-trigger likewise available as special equipment, he is
able to make precise time measurements for the subsequent analysis of data.
A gearshift light fl ash integrated in the system and adjustable in terms of
frequency and brightness allows the driver to achieve precisely the shift speed
required. At the same time this fl ashlight may also be used as an engine speed
indicator for starting in race style, fl ashing on and off at the appropriate speed –
approximately 9,000 rpm – for an optimum start.
Whenever engine speed is too low, the light fl ash will go off. Whenever engine
speed is too high, the light display will come on permanently.
A fi nal important point is that the instrument cluster in the S 1000 RR is the
lightest of its kind.

Dynamic, asymmetrically arranged lightweight headlights.
The asymmetric confi guration and layout of the main and high-beam headlights
comes from endurance racing, applying the principle of maximum effect on
minimum weight. Precisely this is why the high-beam headlight is much smaller
than the low-beam unit.
The front direction indicators come off easily and quickly for racing the
S 1000 RR on the track. Similarly, the numberplate support including the rear
direction indicators and numberplate light may be removed very quickly, simply
by pulling a plug and unscrewing three fastening bolts.
LED direction indicators for further customisation are available as an option.
The LED rear light cluster comes as standard in clear glass design, use of LEDs
instead of conventional bulbs ensuring reliable and maintenance-free operation
and offering a much longer service life.

New electrical switches for optimum control.
The S 1000 RR features the new generation of switches and hand controls
already introduced on the K 1300 S. These new switches are far smaller and
more compact in theri dimensions, offering supreme function, clear design and
optimum accessibility.
Previously separated from one another, the switches for the direction indicators
at the left and right are now combined in one function on the left handlebar,
avoiding any confusion of the direction indicators and the horn. The hazard
warning fl ashers are operated by a separate switch within easy reach on the
left handlebar. Operation of the low and high beam as well as the light fl ash is
controlled by one single switch the rider is able to operate conveniently with his
left index fi nger.
A truly unique feature versus the competition and a very practical highlight is the
selection and operation of all functions and settings on the instrument cluster
from the left handlebar. A toggle switch also on the left handlebar enables the
rider to conveniently operate both Race ABS and DTC. And to choose the
appropriate engine mode, fi nally, the rider just has to use the Mode switch on
the right handlebar.

Supreme performance and dynamics from every angle.
The S 1000 RR comes in the unmistakable design language and look of
BMW Motorrad. Asymmetries intentionally featured in the design of the
machine as well as the typical split of the front silhouette into two halves, the
so-called Split Face, are design features characteristic of BMW Motorrad now
also borne out proudly and distinctly on the new S 1000 RR.
The S 1000 RR stands out clearly from its competitors through the looks of the
machine alone, the extremely slender fairing giving the S 1000 RR an extremely
sporting appearance. These attributes clearly follow the overall design of the
machine with its short and low front end, the high and compact rear, as well as
the intentional look of lightness.
The low-slung front fairing and the high-rising, muscular rear end are almost
reminiscent of a hungry animal ready to pounce at any time. Slender, dynamic
proportions clearly characterise this well-trained, athletic supersports. From the
front the most outstanding features are the asymmetric split of the headlight as
well as the large centre air intake clearly demonstrating that on this machine the
wind rushing by is converted into additional performance.

Asymmetric headlights in endurance look.
The individual lines of the S 1000 RR refl ect the design line of BMW Motorrad.
The Split Face, for example, a black-grained surface around the headlights,
clearly expresses the technical functions of the machine at this point with its
highly effi cient central air intake and the aerodynamically optimised windshield.
The Split Face, a black, grained surface on the upper section of the fairing
around the headlights, divides the upper section of the fairing, as seen from
the front, into two “halves of a face”, thus ensuring both excitement and a truly
unique look.
In its design and size, the main headlight takes up the typical look of the starter
numbers on an endurance racing machine, while for constructional reasons
alone the high-beam headlight is much smaller. Apart from this asymmetry
creating both excitement and dynamism, the Split Face serves to subdivide the
large painted surface in visual terms, giving the upper section of the fairing an
even lighter and more sporting look.



5. Body and Design.

Yet another design feature of all BMW motorcycles is the clear separation of
the upper and lower fairing sections also to be admired on the S 1000 RR. So
while the Split Face so typical of BMW , in combination with the asymmetric
headlights of the S 1000 RR reminiscent of endurance racing, creates a truly
unmistakable face, the optical split dividing the upper and lower section of the
fairing gives the entire motorcycle a particularly light and challenging look.

Light and dynamic design language.
The S 1000 RR will immediately catch your eye with its side fairing sections
fi nished in the body colour of the machine. The dividing line down the side interacts
with the dynamic lines of the motorcycle as a whole, extending upwards all
the way to the rear end to ensure extremely light and dynamic design language.
The asymmetric shape of the headlights continues into the side fairings. While
the left-hand side is dominated by a large opening for discharging hot air, the
right-hand side stands out through its extremely dynamic and unmistakable fi n
The frame, wheel guidance elements and wheels further emphasise the
motorcycle’s transparency and lightness, thus underlining the extreme level of
technology BMW Motorrad has set out to achieve with the S 1000 RR.
The 50:50 split of the twin-tip engine spoiler is refl ected as yet another sign of
distinction by the rear light cluster in clear glass.

Striking rear silencer in racing look.
Full observance of even the strictest noise and emission standards despite
supreme engine power was one of the objectives in developing the exhaust
system for the new S 1000 RR. But at the same time the development engineers
attached the same signifi cance to maintaining the slender silhouette and
the dynamic, light-looking appearance of the S 1000 RR, not wishing to spoil
this unique look with an excessively large rear muffler.
Using sophisticated technology already described in detail in the Drivetrain
Chapter, the engineers succeeded in developing a rear muffler with the design
and dimensions formerly to be found only on racing machines. Short, slightly
conical in shape and with a slanted rear end, the muffler accentuates the
sporting performance and dynamic character of the S 1000 RR most impressively,
blending perfectly with the overall design concept characterised by a light
and truly dynamic look.

Intelligent lightweight construction with exceptional details and

The search for minimum weight is refl ected throughout the S 1000 RR in virtually
every feature. As usual, the overall concept developed by BMW Motorrad
from the start provides the key to success, the front load-bearing section
serving not only to hold the instrument cluster, the rear-view mirrors, the
headlights, the horn and the upper section of the fairing, but also, through its
functional, duct-like design, guiding air through the ram-air system. And in order
to reduce weight to an absolute minimum and concentrate all masses close
to the centre of gravity, the front section is made of extra-light pressure-cast
To achieve the truly demanding weight target of just 204 kg or 450 lb (without
Race ABS) in road trim with a full tank, the S 1000 RR comes as the only
supersports in this segment with a custom-built fuel tank made of deep-drawn
aluminium and manufactured in close cooperation with BMW ‘s Eisenach Plant.
Wall thickness on the various fairing sections also refl ects the rule to minimise
the weight of the machine, the walls ranging in thickness, depending on
their purpose, from less than 2 millimetres to a maximum of 2.5 millimetres
(0.08-0.10″), thus ensuring effi cient lightweight construction also in this respect.

Supreme aerodynamics on all features.
Not least, the development team responsible for the S 1000 RR also focused on
the superior aerodynamics and streamlining of the machine. The big advantage
is that this means not only a minimum drag coeffi cient, but also other, even
more complex requirements such as the extraction of heat from the radiator and
the exhaust gas system as a particularly challenging task, given the compact
construction of the S 1000 RR.
The new S 1000 RR offers the rider the best protection from wind and weather
available in the supersports segment. At the same time specifically applied,
patented openings in the windshield prevent any undesired swirl effect, keeping
pressure on the rider’s helmet and upper body to a pleasantly low level even at
high speeds.

Ideal overall ergonomics and a front wheel-oriented seating position.
One of the objectives in developing the S 1000 RR was to make the motorcycle
particularly slender and compact. And precisely this is refl ected not only by
the overall dimensions of the machine, but also by specific parameters such as
length, width, and height. Indeed, the rider can even feel the compact structure
of the S 1000 RR, particular attention being given to keeping the machine as
slender as possible around the rider’s knees, following the principle that to ride
well you have to sit well.
The benchmark set and achieved here was ensure compact dimensions
otherwise to be found only in the 600-cc supersports segment. The active,
cool, calm and collected, front wheel-oriented seating position is simply ideal for
the rider and a sporting style of riding. From the start BMW Motorrad attached
great signifi cance to refi ned ergonomics, meeting the needs of both the short
and the tall driver ideally and thus ensuring perfect riding conditions at all times.
Developing the new S 1000 RR, the engineers at BMW Motorrad were able
to achieve optimum overall ergonomics from the start, without the need for all
kinds of adjustments and different settings. However, BMW Motorrad still offers
fully adjustable HP footrests as special equipment for greater customisation of
the machine, making sure that the footrests allow a wide range of adjustment
offered completely by the shift linkage bars extending through the frame and
therefore avoiding the need for any subsequent change in gearshift kinematics.
Direct integration of the shift bars and the position of the pivot points on the
production model ensure maximum shift precision right from the start, together
with minimum operating forces and the best possible feeling when shifting.
The wide range of special equipment also includes folding HP brake and clutch
levers for further customisation of the S 1000 RR to an even higher standard.

DoubleR Collection
Enjoying a perfect match to the BMW S 1000 RR, the ambitious sports rider
with truly professional demands will fi nd everything he needs in the DoubleR
Collection – a complete range of rider equipment tailored to his requirements,
using the most sophisticated, top-quality materials in perfect fi nish.
Through their design alone, the various items in the Collection clearly boast
their close ties with motorsport: The focus is on both looks and comfort as well
as safety and perfection to the last detail.
The DoubleR Collection is made up of the leather suit, helmet, boots and
gloves, offering both the rider of the new BMW S 1000 RR supersports as
well as other sporting and ambitious riders a complete range of rider wear. The
helmet and boots are further improvements of products already very successful
in the market today, the suit and the gloves are new developments.

Optional extras and accessories for a wide range of customisation.
The usual wide range of highlights from BMW Motorrad is naturally available as
before for customising the new BMW S 1000 RR supersports.
Going beyond even the high-performance technology featured as standard on
the BMW S 1000 RR, this new range of extras and special equipment enables
the particularly dedicated, genuinely sporting rider to enhance the performance
of his machine to an even higher level.
Optional extras are delivered straight from the factory and are fitted in the
regular production process. Accessories are fitted by the BMW motorcycle
dealer or by the customer himself, also at a later point in time following delivery.

Optional extras.
o Race ABS.
o Race ABS plus DTC Dynamic Traction Control.
o HP Gearshift Assistant.
o Anti-theft warning system with remote control.


6. Range of Equipment.

Special equipment.
HP parts
o HP Gearshift Assistant.
o HP rider footrests.
o HP passenger footrests.
o HP clutch lever, folding.
o HP brake lever, folding.
o HP lap trigger.
o HP carbon placard mounts, set.
o HP carbon tank cover, set.
o HP carbon chain protector.
o HP carbon wheel cover, front.
o HP carbon wheel cover, rear.
o HP carbon hump cover.
o HP carbon engine spoiler.
o HP carbon heel protector.
o HP placard, 9 millimetres.

Luggage and bags.
o Tank bag.
o Rear bag.

Design and sound.
o Hump cover, plastic, in body colour.
o Akrapovi?® sports muffler.
o LED direction indicators.

Ergonomics and comfort.
o Windshield, tinted.
o Windshield, high.
o Windshield, high, tinted.

Safety and technology.
o Fall sensor.
o Sports assembly stand, front.
o Sports assembly stand, rear.
o Swing arm adapter for assembly stand.

Alpha Racing Performance Parts.
In addition to the wide range of BMW Motorrad accessories naturally homologated
for the road, Alpha Racing Performance Parts offers a complete range of
special parts and components for racing BMW’s new supersports on the track.


7. Engine Output and Torque.

Type Water-cooled 4-stroke in-line four-cylinder-engine, two camshafts, four valves per cylinder
Bore x stroke 80 mm x 49.7 mm
Capacity 999 cc
Rated output 142 kW (193 hp) at 13,000 rpm
Max. torque 112 Nm at 9,750 rpm
Compression ratio 13.0 : 1
Mixture control / engine management Electronic intake pipe injection/digital engine management including knock sensor (BMS-K-P)
Emission control Catalytic- 2 Closed-loop 3-way catalytic converter, emission standard EU-4 ready

Performance / fuel consumption
Maximum speed Over 200 km/h
Fuel consumption per 100 km at constant 90 km/h 5.7 l
Fuel consumption per 100 km at constant 120 km/h 5.9 l
Fuel type Unleaded premium, octane number 95-98 (RON), automatic knock control
Electrical System
Alternator Three-phase alternator 350 W
Battery 14 V / 10 Ah, maintenance-free
Power transmission
Clutch Multiple-disc clutch in oil bath, anti hopping clutch, cable operated
Gearbox Constant mesh 6-speed gearbox
Drive Chain

Chassis / brakes
Frame Bridge-type frame, cast aluminium, load-bearing engine
Front wheel location / suspension 46 mm Upside-down fork, rebound and compression adjustable
Rear wheel location / suspension Cast aluminium swing arm, Continuously adjustable rear inbound-rebound damping, high and low speed
Suspension travel front / rear 120 mm / 130 mm
Wheelbase 1,432 mm
Castor 95.9 mm
Steering head angle 66,1°
Wheels Cast aluminium
Rim, Front 3.50 x 17″
Rim, rear 6.00 x 17″
Tyre, front 120/70 ZR 17
Tyre, rear 190/55 ZR 17
Brake, front Twin disc, floating brake discs,radial-fixed 4-piston calipers, diameter 320 mm, 5 mm thickness
Brake, rear Single disc brake, one-piston floating caliper, diameter 220 mm, 5 mm thickness
ABS DTC**: DTC 4 mode dynamic traction control adjustment, only avalibale with Race ABS, disengageable Race-ABS*: 4 mode Race-ABS adjustment, disengageable

Dimensions / weights
Length 2,056 mm
Width (incl. mirrors) 826 mm
Height (excl. mirrors) 1,138 mm
Seat height, unladen weight 820 mm
Inner leg curve, unladen weight 1,810 mm
Unladen weight, road ready, fully fueled 204 kg (206.5 kg incl. Race-ABS)
Dry weight 183 kg
Permitted total weight 390 kg
Payload (with standard equipment) 187 kg
Usable tank volume 17.5 l
Reserve approx. 4.0 l

8. Specifications.

The colour concept emphasises the unique, dynamic character of the new
BMW S 1000 RR.

In conjunction with the swing arms and wheels in Ostra Grey on the swing arms
and wheels, Mineral Silver Metallic forms a very technical and clear contrast,
giving the S 1000 RR an extremely light, compact and dynamic, but not exaggerated
Thunder Grey Metallic serves a different purpose, intentionally avoiding any
strong contrast and, together with the swing arms and wheels in Ostra Grey,
giving the machine a compact, muscular appearance.
Finished in bold Acid Green Metallic, the S 1000 RR presents a clear commitment
to sporting performance, again bringing back the contrast of colours
impressively underlining the dynamic character of the S 1000 RR. On this
colour variant the swing arms are fi nished in eloxy Silver, the wheels come in
glossy Black.
At extra cost the new S 1000 RR is also available in the colours of the
BMW Motorrad Motorsport Team reminiscent of the colour scheme on the
Superbike Works Racing Machines. In this case the paintwork is modern Alpine
White Non-Metallic, Magma Red Non-Metallic, and Lupin Blue Metallic, with the
swing arms also fi nished in eloxy Silver and the wheels in high-gloss Black.
The frame comes in Black on all colour variants.
An additional optical highlight on all colour variants is the red spring on the
spring strut unit.

About Michael Le Pard 1161 Articles
"Mr. Totalmotorcycle". Owner and Founder of Total Motorcycle. Supporting Motorcyclists and Motorcycling for 18 great years.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply